Ciritdüzü Köyü – Şavşat – Artvin
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History of Yusufeli: The first establishment of the subprefecture was realized in 1879 with the name of “Kiskim” (Alanbaşı village). The center of subpnfecture was connected to Artvin in 1926 by the law no: Ej.77.
Geographical Structure: From geographical structure standpoint, Yusufeli has a very- broken ground, mountainous and rocky areas. Daha fazlasını oku
History of Savsat: Şavşat was under the sovereignty of Urartians, Kimmerians, Saka Turks, Romans and Sasanians between 900 and 950 Re. According to historical sources, Urartu and Kimer tribes lived around Şavşat between the years 900-650 BC. The region remained in the hands of Saka Turks, Romans and Sassanids, respectively.
During the Trabzon Governorship of Yavuz Sultan Selim, when Rize Province joined the Ottoman lands, now the town of Gönye, near Batumi, surrendered spontaneously. After Sultan Selim returned to Trabzon, Artvin Beys wanted to be protected as well. After this, in the second expedition, Artvin, Ardanuç, Şavşat and Borcka circles joined the Ottoman lands and their beys were given semi-chiefdom. After Yavuz Sultan Selim left Trabzon, Şavşat, Ardanuç, Oltu, Tortum and Artvin left the Ottoman Empire again. It was taken for the administrative division of our conquered region (Georgia Province) and Artvin, Şavşat and Ardanuç were turned into sanjaks.
Following the start of the First World War and the entry of the Ottoman Government into the war, the Russian armies crossed our borders on 1 NOVEMBER 1914. Since the current Armenian hostility also increased the danger, a small part of the people of Şavşat were forced to migrate to Anatolia, leaving all their material possessions, due to the cutting of the roads of all the people of Ardanuç and Artvin.
Immediately after the agreement signed with the Georgians, the Eastern Front Commander Kazım Karabekir Pasha, who was waiting in Kars with his forces, was instructed. Our army, which departed from Kars on 22 FEBRUARY 1921, arrived in Ardahan on 23 FEBRUARY, the same forces later crossed the Sahara Mountain and recaptured Şavşat, Ardanuç, Artvin and Borçka, and included them in the Motherland without any further intervention.
Geographical Structure of Savsat: Şavşat is surrounded with high mountains. Karçal Mountains (3,537) are the subprefectural borders in west and northwest. Şavşat is rich in respect of its running waters. Number of glacial lakes exists in the area. The largest one of these lakes is the Lake KaragöL. it is a fruitful lake from irrigation and fishing viewpoint. The salmon trout is abundant. Another lake in the scope of National Parks is another lake like Karagöl, which is suitable for picnic. Şavşat has also number of springs of medicinal mineral water. The spa with its hot water in Çermik of Çoraklı village is medicinal for rheumatism. Şavşat is rich in respect of its plant cover. It has rich forestry areas, and any and all kinds of trees with large leaves in the lands with low altitudes. Winter is long in high altitude points.
Education and Cultural Structure of Savsat: In the subprefectural area there are 1 kindergarden 27 primary schools, 2 primary schools with board and 3 high schools for children’s education.
Şavşat is a rich subprefecture from tourism potential viewpoint. it has unique beauties with its double-floor wooden houses in villages and plateaus, forestry areas, lakes and trekking trucks.
Health Care Services of Savsat: Health care services are introduced in a State Hospital with 50 beds, and 46 rural health centers.
Economy in Savsat: Since Şavşat has the limited agricultural lands, traditional family-type farms and small sheep-pens are mostly seen. The agricultural activities on greenhouses have just been started due to a convenient area climate.
- Meals Made from Milk and Dairy Products
Cheese cake and cream cake.
Dishes Made of Vegetables and Wild Herbs
Mountain beet, bird food, gum, wild purslane, roasted chard, mallow. In addition, food is made from some herbs. Wrapping is made from fresh vine leaves, chard and cabbage.
Katmer, silor, pastry (with walnuts, cheese, minced meat, butter), kete, noodles, hankal, cereal, corn flakes, bişi, fetir, mafiş Turkish delight, çirğ, cimur, kançlama, pasta, ravioli, button pastries.
- Other Dishes
Winter roasts, kebabs made on wooden skewers are local specialties of meat dishes. Dishes such as keskek, gendima and şilav are made from grains.
Pumpkin dessert, Hasuta, kaysefe, zurbiyet, iron dessert, rice pudding, apple, pear, mulberry and grape pulps, ashura, baklava and honey delight are among the desserts.
Purşuk soup, ayran soup, tutç soup, ayran kalacoşu, eski soup, bulgur soup, onion soup, chincharian soup, plum soup, ğerğel soup, watery harşo, hele soup, zucchini soup, cut soup, beetroot soup are among the local soups.
Onion sauerkraut, potato dish, meatballs, flat doner kebab, chard dal dish, plum dish, yoghurt starter, milk egg, flour bowl, kaygana, chilbur, milk cannon, bulama (auguz), motrevli, papasela, cap, kapuska, çenço, Kuymak , Cheese melted, stuffed wrap, hail, onion dish.
Sauerkraut, pickled bean, pickled chard, pickled tomato, pickled salad, pickled Gimi.
- Marmalade and Molasses
Mulberry molasses, Cranberry syrup, pear molasses, grape molasses, cherry molasses, plum molasses, pear jelly, quince molasses, grape marmalade, cranberry marmalade, rosehip marmalade.
In addition, people of our region dry fruits such as mulberry, apple, quince, pear and make “kak” and consume them as snacks or compotes. Another indispensable part of Şavşat cuisine is the white potato grown in our region and consumed by boiling or baking.
History of Murgul: In the 10th century, Murgul was invaded by the Seljuks. This region added to the Ottoman territories during Sultan Mehmet, the Conqueror was suffered by Russian invasion during the Ottoman-Russian war in 1877. It was added again to the Turkish lands in 1920. Murgul has become a subprefecture af ter 1950.
History of Hopa : Hopa was added to the Ottoman State during Sultan Selim’s Governorship of Trabzon in 1490 to 1512.
Geography: Hopa is located in the east portion of eastern Black Sea region. The Republic of Georgia is located in east, Arhavi in west, Borçka in south and the Black Sea in north. The distance to the border gate, named the Sarp where passes to the Republic of Georgia are opened, is 18 km, and to the provincial center is 65 km. it is such a position of intersection on international road to Trabzon-Rize-Artvin-ArdahanKars-Erzurum and the Republic of Georgia.
History of Borcka: It is reported in written documents that the first residents in the region in which Artvin and Borçka are located, had been the Hurries. It is known that Hurries, starting from 2000 Re., had established a state in a large area. Various written literature report that Urartians had extended in a large area up to the area of Borçka, and then Kimmerians, Saka Turks, and Arsakians had dominated within the area. From 576 A.D., Byzantines and in 645 AD Islamic army in the period of Caliph Ottoman dominated the region followed by Emevies, Caspian Turks and Bagratians.
History Of Arhavi: It was connected to Rize Governorship of Sancak of Trabzon province after Russian invasion in Batum in 1877. Arhavi was given a sub prefecture statue in June 1954 following the connection of Hopa to Arhavi. Arhavi located in north of eastern Black Sea mountains is surrounded with the Black Sea in north, Fındıklı sub prefecture of Rize in west, Hopa in east and partly with Murgul and Yusufeli sub prefectures in south.
History of Ardanuc: In prehistoric times Urartians, Saka Turks, and Iskit Turks in the 8th century Re., and after 75 A.D., the Caspians, Barsellians and Bagratians, which were ancient branches of Oğuz tribe, settled in Ardanuç. In the time of Süleyman the Magnificent, Ardanuç was conquered in 1551 A.D. by Iskender Pasha. He established the Ardanuç Flag of Ottomans. Ardanuç was invaded by Englishmen and Georgians after the Mondros Armistice but taken back on March 7, 1921 by Gumru Treaty, and took its position within today’s borders. Ardanuç, which has been connected politically to Artvin until1945, became a sub prefecture in the same year. Daha fazlasını oku
Artvin is located on the east of the Black Sea Region, and there is Ardahan on the east and southeast, Erzurum on the south, Rize on the west, Black Sea on the northwest and the Republic of Georgia on the north.
The total area of Artvin is 7,436 sq km and it has 34 km of coastline along the Black sea, and it has 109 km of border-line with the Republic of Georgia. In terms of land structure, Artvin is generally mountainous and in the city there are not savannas with the exception of the plain areas in the coastline of Arhavi and Hopa.Within the borders of the city there are nearly 30 rivers and a number of natural lakes.
In Artvin during the 2002-2003 educational period in the aggregate of 33,569 students received training and education. The distributions of the schools are: 37 preschool institutions, 174 primary schools, and 26 vocational and normal high schools.
In the city there are 7 state hospitals, 2 social insurance association hospitals, 1 health center, 37 local clinics, 214 health centers and 1 private medical center.
FACULTIES AND COLLEGES
University education is introduced in the faculty of Forestry of Kafkas (Caucasian) University, the vocational Higher School of Artvin, and the Faculty of Education of the Black-See Technical University established recently.
URBANIZATION AND HOUSING
The population increase in Artvin has a high percentage among the other cities in the Black Sea Region.
SOCIAL LIFE AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
Turkish traditions and customs are applied authentically as being in Artvin. The people in the region are faithful to their state and have the national unity and cooperation conscious. The religious and national festivals are celebrated in excitement in the city. The interest and participation of the people in region in the cultural activities are high.
WORK LIFE AND SOCIAL SECURITY
When the sectoral distribution of employment is examined during the period of 1980-2000, it is seen that despite there is a continuous diminishing in the employment in the agriculture and industry sectors, the workers in the agriculture sector have the biggest share within total employment. According to the national census in 2000, 61 % of 80,276 workers are working in the agriculture sector.
TRANSPORTATION AND INFRASTRUCUTURE
Transportation network in Artvin is 5,681 km. In Artvin the transportation problem between the population centers is mainly solved. There are 271 km city roads and 273 km state roads network in the city.
In the provincial area there are 7 projects of dams, which 3 of them are under construction, and 4 are in the stage of contracting, and a HPP project. Five dams, Muratlı, Borçka, Deriner, Artvin and Yusufeli are situated on the Çoruh River, and the other two, Bayram and Bağlık on the branches of the river. The total installed power of dams is 2,084 MW and their average power generation is planned to be 6.3 billions kws/hour per annum. Starting generation of power in these dams will ensure an outstanding contribution to the nationwide power need increasing gradually.
Bulk of the city is covered by the very steep mountains. The more important of them are Kaçkar Mountain on the intersection point of the city borders of Artvin-Rize-Erzurum, Kükürt Dağı located on the city border of Artvin and Rize, Karçal Mountain Chains located on the east of Borçka District, and Yalnızçam and Çadır Mountains located in Ardanuç District.
Plateaus cover 51% of provincial lands of Artvin district. Main plateaus are:
Meşeli, Kurudere, Düzenli, Kireçli, Yığılı, Kapik, Irmaklar, Bilbilan (Bülbülan), Çamlıca, Hanlıköy, Ballı, Yoncalı and Sahara Plateaus are located in the region on the southeastern line created by the rooks Yusufeli, Zeytinlik and Ortaköy (Berta).
Manatba, Taşköprü, Meydancık, Zata, İmneza, Mısırlı, Goman, Lekoban, Merete, Oba, Karsnal, Devtopan, Kırkırım Plateaus in the region located between Muratlı (Maradit), – Borçka, Artvin – Ortaköy (Berta) brooks and Georgia.
Keşoğlu, Çamlık, Sevahil, Mağara, İnekli, Durça, Kovahit, Kocakarılı, Dikme ve Taşkınlık Plateaus in the region located in north and northwestern line of Merkez Subprefecture Zeytinlik and Yusufeli.
In Artvin narrow and deep valleys were shaped by rivers. The most important valley among them is Çoruh Valley. The length of this valley within the borders of Artvin is 150 km. and this valley has narrow and deep canyons.
This Basin is worth to see and it shelters in olive, stone pine and other vegetation that grow in the Mediterranean climate. It has also interesting geographic structure and different climate characteristics.
The longest river in Artvin city is Çoruh River. There are a number of Long and short, large and small rivers, brooks and creeks within provincial lands.
The provincial lands are extended in the district convenient for creation of ore-beds. The richest national copper ore-beds are situated in Artvin.
The climate in Artvin exhibits diversity because of particulars of earth surface.
Almost 55 % of the land in Artvin (397.470 hectare) covered by forests.
In Artvin there are a lot of large and small lakes. Most of them are formed at the bottoms of glacial valleys and generally called dark lakes. In front of these deep lakes there are moraines heaps. The most important of are the ones located in Şavşat and Borçka, called dark lakes.
Life in Artvin district is dated back to very old times. The ruins in old settlements, tombs, and historical arts found during excavations made for constructions of roads and houses, and for archeological and exploration purposes reveal that Artvin has been a very old place for settlement and mining. it has been determined by the specialists that the copper axes found in Artvin, and Meşeli village of Şavşat subprefecture in 1930, and Demirköy village of Yusufeli in 1955 are dated from Re. 4000-3000; and the bronze ones are from Re. 3000-2000. These arts have been remained from the Hurries age.
In 75 A.D., Sembat, leader of Arsakians in Taok district defeated the raiders of Huns and Peçeneks raided to the south of Caucasians. Khazarians and Barsellians coming from the north of Caucasians occupied the area in 182-186 A.D. Borçka, Livana (Yusufeli-Artvin), Acara (Macahel-Acara), Şavşat, Tahoskar/Tavuskar (Şenkaya-Oltu-Ardanuç) were the settlements in the north regional section of the state founded after occupation of Arsakians.
East Rome Period
Later on, upon a “Peace for Eternityıl made by Justiniaus with Iran, the districts of Erzurum and Çoruh, which were the west section of Arsakians, passed to the Byzantium domination.
Islamic Raids Period
Starting from Artvin, Savşat and Ardanuç, all settlements have been occupied by Muslims by means of making peaces. Artvin and its environs were come into Byzantine possession in seven years af ter Muslim occupation. In the second mid of the century VIII, Khazar Turks occupied completely the tribes of Kürs and Arases. Meanwhile, Artvin was added to Kazarians, and were thereafter protected against Arabians.
Adarnase from Bagrat (764-786) who was the provincial leader of Ardahan-Arsiyan-Şavşat-Tayk and Acara entered under the protection of Khazarians. Ahiska and Tayk regions of Ardahan were subject to the Tbilisi-Arabian Emirate connected to the Caliph of Baghdad af ter the establishment of the same Emirate by Harun Reşit in 786 A.D.
The raids by Seljukians to inner Anatolia would not come to an end. In 1054 A.D., Tuğrul Bey would siege the Malazgirt Castle of Byzantium while the raiders of his army would raid the Bagratian country up to Bayburt, Barkar Mountains and mid River Çoruh. Alparslan, the Seljukian Sultan who conquered Çıldır from Bagrations, and Ani from Byzantines in June 1064 A.D., punished Bagarat who followed aggressive attitudes by taking Byzantines’ support at his back. In the same year, he added Ardahan, and the next year Ardanuç, Artvin, Borçka, Oltu, Tortum and Yusufeli into his country. Alparslan has allotted the areas he has conquered to his tribes under his domination af ter the Victory of Malazgirt in 1071. So, Çoruh district was given to Ebul Kasım, Emir of Erzurum.
At the date when Sultan Mehmet, the Conqueror has terminated The Byzantine-Greek Pontus Kingdom, Yusufeli, Ardanuç, Şavşat and Borçka districts of Artvin were under domination of a tribe of Çıldır Atabeks whose capital was the Kale of Ardanuç. The leaders Imerhev of Şavşat and Acara-Macahel have participated in the Ottoman State following accepting of Muslim religion while they were connected to a tribe of Atabeks.
Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-1878
In 1877, Russians attacked four times to Kars, but they were defeated by Turkish army under the command of Ahmet Paşa, in four open-space fights. Ardanuç Flag was divided into two between the years of 1877 and1917 during nomination of 40-year reign. At that time, all offices and schools except a few mosques and chapels were closed, and all communication was interrupted. The inhabitants have never believed the Russian assimilation, and lost the hope of joining to their home country again.
Independence of Artvin
By means of a diplomatic tone, the Ankara Government would inform to and request from the Georgian Government that the areas under domination of Georgian occupation should be emptied on the one hand, and would give an order to the Command of North Front of Turkish Army that these areas should be occupied even though by force. The date of expiry of that ultimatum was the midnight of February 22, 1921. The actual independence took place on March 7, 1921 when Turkish military unites reached to Artvin.
Despite there are indusrial plants and grain cultivation in the city, now it is becoming widespread to cultivate leguminosae and vegetables. The main agricultural products are: tea, hazelnut, beans, potato, grapes, corn, various fruits and feed plants for animals.
Maritime fishing has an important role in the economy of Arhavi and Hopa as these districts are located on the coastline of Black Sea.
It is necessary to use the areas that appropriate for agriculture with maximum efficiency since there is a shortage of agricultural fields.
55 % of area of the province that is equivalent to 397,470 hectare is covered by forest.
DAMS AND EROSION CONTROL PROJECTS
Erosion control and reforestation projects with the purposes to prevent erosion and prolong the lives of dams on the areas where Muratlı, Borçka, Deriner Artvin and Yusufeli dam projects, and also Bayram and Baglik projects starting to be constructed on the side branches of Çoruh River.
The potential erosion area of 31,750 hectares determined in the term of dam basins by means of the project planned to be completed in about 10 years synchronized with the commissioning of the dams which are financed by DSI would have been protected against erosion.
Including Artvin city center in our city there is not a small indusrty zone in working order. In the investment program of the year 2002 there are Small Industrial Zone projects for constituting industrial zones in Artvin Center, Arhavi and Hopa. The construction activities ain Artvin Center and Hopa are going on.
In our city it is considered important to costitue small industry zones for contributing regional economy. The industrial zones of Artvin, Arhavi, and Hopa which are in the scope of 2002 investment program are planned to be completed in the year 2003.
Companies: There are 86 registered corporations in the city and 56 of them stili continue their activities and 532 of the 612 registered limited companies continue their activities.
Banks: Among the city there are 19 branch banks of 5 banks.
Chambers: There are 18 chambers formed by the Chamber of Artvin Craftsmen and Artisans and there are 5.550 registered artisans and eraftsmen. Cooperatives:
In our city there are 13.457 registered members of 164 cooperatives.
Artvin has a 5000year historic accumulation of considerable number of historic arts such as monasteries, chapels, castles, mosques, bridges and mansions, which are the footprints of number of civilizations survived in this region.
Artvin is one of the areas of country where the best samples of wood and stone architecture are come across, local music and dances are admired by everybody who listen and watch, local cuisine culture is rich, and the handicrafts leaded by wooden crafts are produced.
Artvin has a special geographic character with its mountains with different altitudes, natural forests, monument-like trees, glacier lakes and high mountains, canyons, villages and plateaus. Alpinism in Kaçkar, Altıparmak and Karçal Mountains, trekking in natural beauties, rafting in worldwide well-known running water, the Çoruh River and Barhal creek put forward the potential of its aquatic sports.
Festivals organized particularly in July and August in Artvin ensure Artvin Lovers and tourists a 30-40-day uninterrupted entertainment.
Fifty percent of Artvin’s lands are covered with forests. Forests have considerably rich flora and fauna. Numerous endemic species survives within this very rich plant cover. Hunting tourism is also wellknown. Because of its rich running water resources fishing is preferred for particularly salmon trout. Artvin will be expected to be a center of bird-observation viewpoint because it is located on the route of immigrant birds.
One of 300 locations very well protected across the world is in Artvin (MACAHEL). Artvin is in the agenda of world’s public opinion from the ecotourism studies viewpoint developed within the philosophy of protection of nature.
Completion of dams under construction in the Çoruh River would contribute a vision of being a “lakes region” for Artvin. Transportation, one of conditions sine qua non of tourism would be settled in a great extent by entering the Black Sea highway into service
MEDIA IN ARTVİN
As the local radio stations the 08FM and the Borçka FM provide broadcasting in Artvin. In addition, Artvin’in Sesi (Voice of Artvin), Alkan, Demokrat Çoruh, Serhat Artvin newspapers are published in the center of Artvin and Arhavi Postası (Arhavi Post), 7 Mart (7th March) (Borçka), Şavşatın Sesi (Voice of Şavşat), Kafkas Sarp Haber (Caucasus Sarp News) (Hopa) and Doğu Gazetesi (Eastern Newspaper) (Hopa) are published in the districts of Artvin.
The first ruins reached today in the Artvin lands are the monasteries and castles. Generally they were built in between the V to XI centuries, during the period of Bagratli Kingdom. In the period of Ottoman domination in mid XVI century, mosques, shrines, fountains, bridges, and mansions are main historical arts.
MONASTERIES AND CHURCHES
Starting with Artvin center almost all of subprefectures particularly in Ardanuç, Şavşat and Yusufeli, you can see monasteries built by cut-stone having monumental character. They are very are historical arts within its category reached to today.
Pırnallı (Porta) Monastery: It is in Bağlık, Pırnallı village of Artvin. There is no road for vehicles car way to the monastery and it is composed of a church, Beli Tower, chapel-fountain and other constructions. They were constructed by Bağratlı Kingdom in the 15th century. It reflects best the Middle Age Monastery settlement to our day.
Hamamlı (Dolishane) Monastery Church: It is in Hamamlı village of Artvin. Only its church has survived. It was constructed by the Bagratlı Kingdom at the end of the 9th century. It was used as a mosque after 17th century until 1889. Its proper stone works and vegetal plastic ornaments are interesting.
İşhan Monastery Church and Chapel: It is in Dağyolu viliage of Yusufeli. It was constructed in the 7th century and its original form was constructed by the Bagratlı Kingdom in the ftrst half of 9th century. It was used as the Batı Haç Kolu Mosque for some time. Its proper stone works, plastic embossed designs and fresques are worth seeing. The “Mother Mary Chepel” is located nearby.
Altıparmak (Barhal) Monastery Church: It is in Altıparmak viliage of Yusufeli. It was constructed in the 10th century by the Bagratlı Kingdom on behalf of “Baptist Yayya”. Its plan is basilical and it was turned into a mosque at the end of 17th century and is stili used as a mosque. Its stone work is proper and the building is very sound. Its monumental aura is worth seeing.
Dörtkilise Monastery: It is in Tekkale village of Yusufeli. It is composed of a beli-tower, church, dining hall, seminar room and a chapel. The building group was constructed by Bagratlı Kingdom at the end of 9th century. Its plan resembles that of Altıparmak Church. It reflects the Middle Age monastery pattern very well in the region
Artvin Castle (Livane): It was constructed on a main rock 70m over the Çoruh River across the other side of Artvin Bridge at Erzurum – Samsun Highway. It was constructed by Bagratlı Kingdom in the middle of 10th century and also used by the Ottomans. It has survived tili today and its high tower attracts attention.
Ardanuç (Gevhernik) Castle: It is in Adakale. The construction of the building began B.C. It was used as a ruling place during the Bağratlı Kingdom, Çıldır Atabeks and the Otomans. It is one of the most important casles in the region, and represent the only example of a city structure with its inner castle and city walls. lts remmanants belonging to the previous times and the inscription that belogs to Süleyman the Magnificent, attract attention.
Şavşat (Satel) Castle: It is in Söğütlü quarter of Şavşat. It was constructed by Bagratlı Kingdom in the 9th century and also used by the Ottomans. Today it is abandoned, but, its high castle and most of the city walls are erected.
Under the frame of Turkish-Islamic culture, the construction of mosques was started in the 16th century. An increase in building of mosque, in which civil architectural tradition was dominant, started at the beginning of the 18th century. The most outstanding structures in which wooden hand made ornaments on the portals, pulpits, walls and ceilings of mosques are very interesting.
Çarşı (Merkez) Mosque. This structure situated in the Centrum of Artvin was built in 1860.
Çayağzı (Salih Bey) Mosque. It is situated in Çayağzı (Korzul) quarter of Centrum was constructed in 1792 by Salih Bey, one of the leaders of Livane tribe.
Zeytinlik Mosque. It is situated village of Artvin Centrum, and was built in 1857 by a Lady Saliha (Saliha Hanım).
İskender Pasha Mosque. It is one of the first mosques of the area, and located in Adakale quarter of Ardanuç subprefecture. It was open for prying in 1553 by İskender Pasha, Senior Leader of Erzurum who conquered the Ardanuç castle in 1551.
Merkez (Çarşı) Mosque. It is situated in the Centrum of Arhavi subprefecture, and was built in 1862.
Ortacalar Merkez Mosque. It is in Ortacalar village of Arhavi subprefecture, and was built in 1757.
Muratlı Merkez Mosque. It is situated in Muratlı village of Borçka subprefecture, and was built in 1846 by an Artisan Mehmet, son of Reşit.
Orta Hopa Mosque. It is known that this mosque, which has no art-of-writing, was built at the end of 16th century.
Erenköy Mosque. It is situated in Erenköy village of Murgul subprefecture, and was built in 1863
Zor Mustafa Bey Mosque. It is situated in Köprülü village of Şavşat subprefecture, and was built in16th century.
Esendal Mosque. It is situated in Esendal village of Yusufeli subprefecture, and was built in 1818 by Muhammad Bey, one of leaders of Kiskin(Yusufeli).
Berta Bridge: It is on the Şavşat Road in Artvin. It was constructed before 1878 by the Ottomans and its flooring length is 64 m. It has three arches and the surface is smooth. It is still sound today.
Ortacalar Double Bridge: It is at Arılı Küçükköy crossroad 2.5 km to Ortacalar village of Arhavi district. It is composed of two bridges vertical to each other. Both of the have single arch and the road is sloppy and made of stone. They are still sound today.
The folkloric games of Artvin are atom, mendo, vazriya, sasa, kobak, düz horon and hemşin, atabari, ucayak, uzundere, sahlan, doney, ahcik, agirbar and cilveloy.
Traditional Woman Wear:
In the past the women would wear dresses called Three Skirts. Upon this a sort of long arm and embroidered waistcoat would be worn. The knee part of the dress was wide and resembled the golf trousers of today. On their waists they would feasten belts and waist clothes (peştemal). Old women would wear fosses whose top part was smoothed, a yazma (a sort of cloth) on it and a leçek (a type of scarf) on that.
Young women would attach golden coins (mahmudiye) on their foreheads.
Traditional Men’s wear
Till the republican times men would wear baggy trousers and broadcloth made of a rough cloth called shawl which was weaved in the looms of the villages. The waists of these shawls, to the sides of which black and dark blue and dark blue silk cords were attached, were tightened. Instead of a jacket, they would wear a long-armed broadcloth which resembled a sort of short jacket with sleeves and this broadcloth had two pockets on two sides of the chest. These pockets were used for bullet cartridges. People who had opportunity had their clothes sewn in the factor. These clothes have caps called “kabalak”.
Houses and mansions of 200 to 300 years old from the Ottoman period have different constructor material in each prefecture. Two of them, the Hemşioğulları and the Zor Mustapha Mansions which are called by their owners’ name, are still in good condition.
The wooden works are very developed in Artvin, which is the land of forests. The wood is used from the wooden architecture to agricultural life and from daily architecture to agricultural life and to the tools and equipment that are used in the daily life. The ehram (pyramid shaped) carpet and rugs are woven as well as the “shawl” weaving in the region.
In Artvin the local tradition of cuisine within Turkish folk culture has been surviving with its full colors. Local names are given below:
Soups: püşürük, çılbır, pancar, çinçar ve lor soups.
Meals made of milk are kuymak, peynir eritmesi.
Borçka Karagol (Dark Lake): The lakes are reached by 5 km gravel road that turns from the 22nd km of Borcka-Camili road. There are campsites and parcures for trekking around the lake.
Savsat Karagol (Dark Lake): It is 25 km away from center of Savsat and it is in the borders of Sahara National Park. The environs of lake are covered by dense forests, which are formed by spruce trees and pine trees. Karagol and its environs which are formed by natural elements have unique landscape beauties. It is one of the most proper places for camping and caravan tourism.
Artvin region is one of the ideal areas for the health tourism too. The elevations between 800 and 2000 meters are accepted as “healthy climate zone”, and therefore the villages, hamlets and plateaus are established as if this specialty is considered in Artvin.
Camili (Macahel) Basin: From Borçka to the region, transportation is ensured by an asphalt road of 30 km and a gravel road of 20 km. Its forests are such an ecosystem created by monument-like trees almost not touched among the forests not only in Turkey but also Europe. Camili basin has bird-watching areas because of its location is on the migration way of predatory birds. The region attracts attention with its red trout in its creeks, and the “Macahel honey” produced by bees of pure Caucasian race. A part of Camili Basin named as “Gorgit and Efeler Nature Protection Area” is under protection.
Kemalpasa Beach: This beach is one of the best beaches in Artvin that located 15 kms far from Hopa district and it is suitable for camping and caravan tourism with its clear sae and shore nearly 2 kms on Dark Sea.
Sportive Angling: In the rivers and lakes in all parts of the city especially in Barhal brook, Hatila brook, Arhavi Ortacalar brook and Borcka Camili Brook and in the rivers which are located in high places you may angling.
Meydancik (Imerhev): The vicinity of Meydancik is worth to see with its special characteristics. There is an ideal settlement harmonious with the nature, especially Maden Village’s great plateaus, houses completely made of wood and finally with its own culture.
Kackar Mountains: Kackar Mountains indicated by the WWF (World Wildlife Fund) as one of the most important 200 regions which are the privileged protected places of the world, are presented as candidate for a “Pan Park” system. Kackar mountains which have more than 230 bird species, approximately 2300 plant species as 550 of them are endemic and is with natural aged and subtropical forests, glaciers and glacier lakes, natural life, rare ecosystems, overflowing brooks the proper tracking parks which may be easily climbed to 3937 meters high peak presents its visitors the unique natural beauties.
Karcal Mountains: Karcal Mountains is located on the northeast of Artvin and have the deep blue lakes which may be observed during whole year. The forests which have all tones of green, overflowing brooks, the endemic plant species and fauna and have a natural park view; its highest hill is 3652 meters.
Hatila Valley National Park: Communication to the valley is ensured by a gravel-road of 10 km far from the provincial center. Both its interesting geological and geomorphologic structures and its original flora give specialty of an area come across rarely in Turkey. Moreover, the unique beauties landscapes arise out as a result of unification of these natural elements, and in this ease a rich recreational potential is introduced.
Sahara-Karagol National Park: Sahara National Park in Karagol, within the district limits of Şavşat includes two separate fields. Sahara is 17 km away from Şavşat district and is located on the Şavşat-Ardahan highway. Its forests are formed by the spruce trees and fir trees. The fields which have the anthropogenic steppe character cover the large areas.
Gorgit-Efeler Nature Protection Areas: Its natural aged forest is one ofits natural old forests which include the trees that each may be a monument and are being very important parameter for the world’s natural protection criteria. It is a rain forest ecosystem with its virgin plant cover which grows up through the deep valleys under the 3200 mm annual rain amount and continuous relative humidity.
Rafting – Canoe: Çoruh River is one of the fastest running rivers across the world subsequent to the Zambezi and Biabio Rivers. It runs about 260 km, and has 1 to 6-degree of difficulty in 4 different laps for rafting. This region is visited by native and foreign sportsmen and women doing aquatic sports such as rafting, canoeing and river skiing, coming all over the world each year.
Tracking: The best tracks for mountain climbings are located on the highest Kackar range located in Eastern Black Sea region. Alpinist groups who came to the region finishes their Trans-Kackar tracking by walking from Yusufeli Yaylalar village to Rize – Camlihemsin – Ayder high plateaus. Besides, there are suitable tracks for alpinists on Altiparmak and Karchal Mountains, there are pensions and campgrounds for visitors to stay.
Nature Tracking with Horse- There are ideal areas for the “nature tracking with horse” in the plateaus which are at the skirts of Kaçkar and Karçal Mountains in Savsat, Ardanuc and Yusufeli villages.
Plateau Tourism: There are beautiful samples of wooden and stone architectures on the plateau which are widespread in Artvin. The Artvin plateaus, spread over the greenish plains on the forest covered mountains and which the overflowing rivers pass. As the tent/camp areas are available on those entire plateaus, the pensions are available on some of them.
Camp and Caravan Tourism: There are proper places for the camp and caravan tourism on the beaches, resting place in the forest, in the national parks and some of them are Kemalpasa Beach and its environs, Kafkasor Inner Forest Resting Place, Borcka Karagol, Savsat Karagol, Sahara Plateau, Yusufeli Kackar Tourism Center and Yusufeli Cevreli Village rafting camp center.
Bird and Butterfly Observation: The high hills of Hopa, Murgul, Borcka and Artvin are on the migration way of passage birds. So they are suitable places for bird fanciers to observe birds between March and November. Artvin and its districts are really great places with their rich flora and fauna for butterfly fancies.
Jeep Safari Tourism: Artvin has proper areas and courses for those who are interested in the jeep safari with its unique natural beauties.
Eco Tourism: Recently, when the studies on protecting tej cultural and natural resources are popular in the world, Artvin is being important with its perfectly protected nature. Camili (Macahel) Basin is assested within the project on Biologic Variety and Management of Matural Resources – GEF II, which is financed by the World Bank and executed by the Ministry of Forest and Environment of Turkey. It is one of the 4 points in the scope of project in Turkey and its being within the borders of Artvin.
Wild Life: The races such as bear, chamois, boar, wolf, fox, jackal, partridge, quail and trout are some of wildlife in Artvin where 55% of its land covered by forests.
Yüzölçümü 989 kilometrekare olan İlçe; kuzeyde Şavşat, güneyde Yusufeli ve Erzurum’un Olur İlçeleri, doğu Ardahan, batıda ise Artvin Merkez İlçe ile komşudur. Coğrafi bakımdan kırık bir arazi yapısına sahip olan Ardanuç‘un rakımı 500 Metre olup, tipik karasal iklime sahiptir. İlçe merkezi, Kürdevan Yanlızçam ve Horosan dağları ile çevrilidir. İlçe merkezinden, Bulanık, Horhot, Ekşinar çayları ve Güleş deresinin beslediği Ardanuç Deresi geçmektedir. İlçe yüzölçümünün yaklaşık % 32’si ormanlık, % 8’i çayır ve mera, % 56’sı da tarıma elverişsiz araziden oluşmaktadır. İlçe arazisinin yaklaşık % 11’lik alanı tarıma elverişli araziden oluşmaktadır. Ardanuç’un İl merkezine uzaklığı 39 km.dir. İlçenin 49 adet köy ve 1 merkez belediyesi bulunmaktadır. Köyler dağınık yerleşime sahiptir.
İlçenin yararlanabildiği yakın havaalanları Erzurum, Trabzon ve Gürcistan’ın Batum havaalanlarıdır.
Ardanuç’ta Kültür ve Turizm
Ardanuç İlçesi tarihi ve kültürel değeri olan çok sayıda esere sahiptir.
- İskender Paşa Camii ve Türbeleri: Ardanuç ilçesi, Adakale mevkiinde bulunmaktadır. Camiinin İlk yapımı Osmanlı Dönemine dayanmaktadır. 1553 yılında tamir edilerek tekrar ibadete açılmıştır. Yanında Osmanlı Dönemine ait Hatice Hanım, Ali Paşa ve Süleyman Paşa’ya ait Türbeler bulunmaktadır. Yörenin ilk camisi olması açısından önem taşımaktadır.
- Ardanuç (Gevhernik) Kalesi: Ardanuç ilçesi, Adakale mevkiinde yer almaktadır. Kalenin ilk yapılaşması M.Ö. dönemlerde başlamıştır. Bagratlı Krallığı Çıldır Atabekleri ve Osmanlıların yönetim yeri olarak kullanılmıştır. Yöredeki en önemli kalelerden birisi olup iç kalesi ve etrafı surlarla çevrili şehir yapısıyla tek örnektir. Geçmiş dönemlere ait çeşitli kalıntıların yanı sıra, taş kemer dükkanlar, toprakaltı soğuk hava depoları ve Kanuni sultan Süleyman’a ait kitabesiyle de dikkat çekmektedir.
- Ferhatlı Kalesi: Ferhatlı köyünde bulunan Ferhatlı kalesi ilk yapısı Osmanlı Dönemine dayanmaktadır. Tabandan başlayarak kalenin üst kısmına ulaşan kaya içi oyma kapalı yol geçidi Ferhat- Şirin efsanesine benzetilip ilgi çekmektedir.
- Kutlu Köyü Kalesi: Kutlu Köyü bağlar mevkiinde bulunmaktadır. Cinavuz yapısı kale surlarının harçsız büyük kaya taşları ile yapılmış olması nedeniyle ilgi çekmektedir.
- Cehennem Deresi Kanyonu: Türkiye’nin sayılı kanyonlarından biri olan Cehennem Deresi Kanyonu, ilginç doğal yapısı ile insanların ilgisini çekmektedir.
- Rabat Kilisesi: Bulanık Köyüne 6 Km. mesafede Rabat mahallesindeki kilise yabancı turistlerin uğrak yerlerindendir.
- Balkayası: Bulanık, Zekeriya ve Gülice Köyleri yolu üzerinde İlçeye 14 Km. mesafede bulunan 1 Km uzunluk 300 metre yükseklikteki Bal kayası ilgi çeken yerlerdendir.
- Üçlü Kara Göller: Kutlu Köyü üzerinde Bilbilhan yaylası civarında bulunan Kara Göller doğal alabalığı ile ilgi çekmektedir.
- Festival ve Köy Şenlikleri: Ardanuç İlçesi; köy ve yayla şenliklerinin yoğun olarak düzenlendiği ilçelerden biridir. Düzenlenen bu etkinliklerin başlıcaları;
- Ardanuç Belediye Başkalığınca düzenlenen Çuruspil Efkari Aşıklar Şenliği ve Karakucak Güreş Festivali,
- Aydın Köyü Söğüt Düzü Yayla Şenlikleri ve Karakucak Güreşleri Festivali,
- Bereket ve Ovacık Köyleri Yayla Şenlikleri ve Güreş Festivali,
- Bulanık Köyü Soçluk Festivali,
- Güleş Köyü Festivali ve Kutlu Köyü Yayla Şenliği’dir.
Tarih kaynaklarına göre Şavşat civarında M.Ö.900-650 yılları arasında Urartu ve Kimer kabileleri yaşamışlardır. Bölge daha sonraları sırasıyla Saka Türklerinin, Romalıların ve Sasanilerin elinde kalmıştır.
Yavuz Sultan Selim’in Trabzon Valiliği sırasında Rize İlinin Osmanlı topraklarına katıldığı zaman şimdi Batum yakınlarındaki Gönye kasabası da kendiliğinden teslim olmuştur. Sultan Selim Trabzon’a döndükten sonra Artvin Beyleri kendilerinin de korunmasını istemişlerdir. Bunun üzerine yapılan ikinci seferde Artvin, Ardanuç, Şavşat ve Borçka çevreleri Osmanlı topraklarına katılmış beylerine yarı beylik verilmiştir. Yavuz Sultan Selim’in Trabzon’dan ayrılması üzerine Şavşat, Ardanuç, Oltu, Tortum ve Artvin yeniden Osmanlı Devletinden ayrılmışlardır. Fethedilen bölgemiz (Gürcistan Vilayeti) adlı idari bölümü için alınmış ve Artvin, Şavşat, Ardanuç birer sancak haline getirilmiştir.
Birinci Dünya savaşının başlaması ve Osmanlı Hükümetinin savaşa girmesini müteakiben Rus orduları 1 KASIM 1914’de sınırlarımızı geçmiştir. Mevcut ermeni düşmanlığı da tehlikeyi fazlasıyla artırdığından, Ardanuç ve Artvin halkının tamamı yolların kesilmesinden dolayı Şavşat halkının pek az bir kısmı her türlü maddi varlıklarını bırakarak Anadolu içlerine göçmeye mecbur kalmışlardır. Gürcülerle imzalanan anlaşmadan hemen sonra kuvvetleri ile birlikte Kars’ta bekleyen Doğu Cephesi Komutanı Kazım Karabekir Paşa’ya talimat verildi. 22 ŞUBAT 1921 tarihinde Kars’tan hareket eden ordumuz 23 ŞUBAT günü Ardahan’a geldi, aynı kuvvetler daha sonra Sahara dağını aşarak Şavşat, Ardanuç ve Artvin ile Borçka’yı geri alarak bir daha müdahale edilmeyecek şekilde Anavatana dahil etti.
Şavşat, doğuda Ardahan il merkezi ile Hanak İlçesi, kuzeydoğuda Posof İlçesi, güney ve güney batıda Ardanuç, batıda Artvin Merkez ve Borçka İlçesi, kuzeyden de Gürcistan Devleti ile çevrilidir.
1.317 kilometrekarelik dağlık ve engebeli bir arazi üzerine yayılmış bulunan Şavşat İlçesinin dört yanı yüksek dağlarla çevrilidir. 3.537 metreye yükselen Karçkal Dağları, ilçenin batı ve kuzeybatı yönünü sınırlandırır. Kuzeyde 2.250 metre yükseklikteki Sivritepe (Arsiyan) dağları ile 3.000 metreyi aşan Cin dağları bulunmaktadır. Doğuda Ardahan-Artvin sınırlarını teşkil eden Yanlızçam dağ sinsilesinden 2.650 metre yükseklikteki Sahara Dağları, Güneyde ise 3.050 Metreyi bulan Karagöl dağları vardır.
İlçenin rakımı minimum 950 metre, maksimum ise 1800 metredir. İlçe Merkezin rakımı 1100 metredir. Türkiyenin en güzel ilçelerinden biridir.
Şavşat ilçesi Akarsu bakımından zengindir. İlçede çok sayıda buzul gölü bulunmaktadır. Bu göller nispeten küçük göllerdir. Göllerin en büyüğü Karagöl dağlarında bulunan ve bu dağa kendi adını veren Karagöl’ dür. Bol miktarda alabalık bulunan gölden sulama amaçlı olarak yaralanılmaktadır. Meşeli Köyü orman içi mevkiinde Milli parklar kapsamı içerisinde bulunan ikinci bir karagöl mevcut olup piknik, mesire yeri özelliğine sahiptir. Pınarlı köyü yakınlarında Balık Gölü, Arsiyan yaylasında ise Kız Gölü, Boğa Gölü ve Koyun Gölü isminde göller bulunmaktadır.
İlçe dahilinde şifalı maden suları mevcuttur. Bunlardan Çermik-Çoraklı Köyü sınırları içerisinde bulunan sıcak su kaplıcası romatizmal hastalıklara iyi gelmektedir.
İlçede Karadeniz iklimi ile karasal iklim arasında bir geçiş iklimi hakimdir. Yüksek rakımlı olan yerlerde kışlar çok uzun sürer. Bu bölgelerde kasım ayında başlayan kar yağışları nisan ayı ortalarına kadar sürer.
İlçe bitki örtüsü bakımından zengindir. Zengin iğne yapraklı ormanlar mevcut olduğu gibi alçak rakımlı yerlerde yapraklı ağaçlara da rastlamak mümkündür.
Şavşat, Artvin’in diğer ilçelerinde olduğu gibi engebeli araziye sahip bir ilçedir. İlçede, tarımsal arazilerin sınırlı olması, sanayi tesislerinin bulunmaması, başlıca diğer sektörlerin de gelişmemiş olmasının sonucu olarak istihdam olanakları yetersiz kalmaktadır. Gelişime uygun potansiyeli bulunan turizm sektörünün ilçe ve il ekonomisine katkısının artırılması amaçlı çalışmalar sürdürülmektedir. İlçe ekonomisi büyük ölçüde tarımsal üretime dayalıdır. Tarımsal üretim, ağırlıklı olarak, geleneksel aile tipi işletme yapısı şeklinde görülür.
İlçe ekonomisinde önemli yeri bulunan hayvancılık, giderek azalan bir trend izlemektedir. 61 köyü bulunan ilçede, 16.037 adet büyükbaş ve 12.535 adet de küçükbaş hayvan bulunmaktadır. Hayvancılık açısından son derece elverişli imkanlara sahip ilçede, hayvancılığın teşvik edilmesi amaçlı çalışmalar sürdürülmekte olup, bu kapsamda yönlendirme ve kamusal destekler sağlanmaktadır.
Şavşat büyük ve küçükbaş hayvancılık yanında arıcılık açısından da son derece uygun koşullara sahiptir. Arıcılık alanında da üreticilere, kamusal imkanlar dahilinde teşvik ve yönlendirme desteği sağlanmaktadır. Başlangıcında, Çoruh havzasında uygulanan seracılık-örtü altı yetiştiriciliğinin iklim koşullarının uygunluğu ve çiftçilerden gelen talepler üzerine il genelinde yaygınlaşması ile Şavşat’ta da seracılık faaliyetlerine başlanılmıştır.
1997 yılında Sosyal Yardımlaşma ve Dayanışma Vakfı Dayanışma Vakfı parasal desteği ile başlatılan seracılık faaliyetleri yaygınlaşmaktadır. Bu kapsamda amaçlanan yeni istihdam alanlarının yaratılması, tarımsal üretimde çeşitlilik ve verimin sağlanması hedefine ulaşılmıştır. 1317 kilometrekare yüzölçümü bulunan ilçenin tarım arazisi varlığı 175.696 dekar, sulu arazisi 54.840 dekar, kuru tarım alanı 120.856 dekar, mera alanı 364.166 dekar, orman alanı 552.565 dekar ve kültür dışı arazi de 224.573 dekardır. İlçenin tarım arazileri genellikle çayır olarak değerlendirilmektedir. İlçede yetiştirilen başlıca ürünler patates, armut, elma, ayva, erik, kiraz, kızılcık ve cevizdir.
İlçede Tarım kesimi ile Esnaf kesimine kredi sağlayan Ziraat Bankası bulunmaktadır.
- Süt ve Süt Ürünlerinden Yapılan Yemekler
Peynir kuymağı ve kaymak kuymağı.
- Sebzelerden ve Kır Otlarından Yapılan Yemekler
Dağ pancarı, kuş yemeği, gımı, yaban semizotu, pazı kavurması, ebegümeci. Ayrıca bazı otlardan yemek yapılmaktadır. Taze asma yaprağı, pazı ve lahanadan sarma yapılmaktadır.
- Hamur İşleri
Katmer, silor, börek (cevizli, peynirli, kıymalı, tereyağlı), kete, erişte, hınkal, tahıl gevreği, mısır gevreği, bişi, fetir, mafiş lokum, çırığ, cimur, kançlama, makarna, mantı, dügmaç hamur işlerindendir.
- Diğer Yemekler
Kışlık kavurma, ağaç şişlerde yapılan kebaplar etli yemeklerin yöreye özgülerindendir. Keşkek, gendima ve şilav gibi yemekler tanelilerden yapılan yemeklerdendir.
Kabak tatlısı, Hasuta, kaysefe, zurbiyet, demir tatlısı, sütlaç, elma, armut, dut ve üzüm pestilleri, aşure, baklava ve ballı lokum tatlılardandır.
Purşuk çorbası, ayran çorbası, tutmaç çorbası, ayran kalacoşu, eşki çorbası, bulgur çorbası, soğan harşosu, çinçar çorbası, erik çorbası, ğerğel çorbası, sulu harşo, hele çorbası, kabak çorbası, kesme çorbası, pancar çorbası, yöreye özgü çorbalardandır.
Soğan sadveli, patates yemeği, köfte, yatık döner, pazı dalı yemeği, erik yemeği, yoğurt harşosu, sütlü yumurta, un harşosu, kayğana, çilbur, süt harşosu, bulama (ağuz), motrevli, papasela, kapama, kapuska, çenço, Kuymak, Peynir eritmesi, sarma, haşil, soğan yemeği.
Lahana turşusu, fasülye turşusu, pazi turşusu, domates turşusu, salata turşusu, Ğimi turşusu.
- Marmelât ve Pekmezler
Dut pekmezi, Kızılcık koravası, armut pekmezi, üzüm pekmezi, kiraz pekmezi, erik pekmezi, armut hoşavı, ayva pekmezi, üzüm marmelatı, kızılcık marmelatı, kuşburnu marmelatı.
Ayrıca yöremiz insanı dut, elma, ayva, armut gibi meyveleri kurutarak “kak” yapar, çerez veya hoşaf olarak tüketir. Şavşat mutfağının bir diğer vazgeçilmezi yöremizde yetiştirilen ve haşlanarak veya fırınlanarak tüketilen beyaz patatestir.
Yusufeli Tarihi: İlçenin ilk kuruluşu Erzurum sancağına bağlı 1879 yılında “Kiskim” (Alanbaşı Köyü) adı ile gerçekleştirilmiş, ilçe merkezi bir süre sonra Öğdem’e nakledilmiş, 1894 yılında da Ersis’e (bugünkü Kılıçkaya Beldesi) alınmıştır. İlçe merkezi 26 Haziran 1926 tarih ve 877 sayılı Kanunla tekrar Öğdem’e nakledilerek Artvin’e bağlanmıştır.1933 yılında Artvin’in ilçe olmasıyla Yusufeli ilçesi tekrar Erzurum’a bağlanmıştır. 1936 yılında Merkezi Artvin olmak üzere kurulan o günkü adı ile Çoruh Vilayetine bağlanmış daha sonra 16 Şubat 1950 tarih ve 3531 sayılı Daha fazlasını oku
ŞAVŞAT YÖRESİNDEN DERLENEN KELİMELER
Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Bölümü 1990
Burada özellikle Şavşat yöresinden derlediğim kelimeler yer almaktadır. Sizlerin de eğer derlediği kelimeler mevcutsa ya da çalışmalarınız varsa ve Türk Dil Kurumu ilgilenmiyorsa mail adresime gönderirseniz burada sizlerin adıyla yayınlayabilirim. Bu birikimlerin kaybolmasına izin vermeyelim.
Burada yer vermiş olduğum kelimeler Artvin İli Şavşat İlçesi’nde derlenen kelimeler olup hiç şüphesiz birçoğu İstanbul Türkçesine girmiş bulunmaktadır. Ancak birçoğu farklı anlamlara sahiptir. Bu kelimelerden birçoğu da diğer dillerden geçmiş olup bunlar üzerine henüz detaylı bir çalışma ne yazık ki yapılamamıştır.
Şavşat yöresi ağzı üzerine henüz dilbilim kurallarına uygun bir çalışma yapılamadığı için bu kelimelerin günümüz Türkçesine nasıl aktarılacağı da henüz belirlenmemiştir. Bundan dolayı ben burada kelimelerin yaklaşık uyarlamalarını esas alarak sıraladım ve Şavşat Yöresi’ndeki okunuş ve söyleniş biçimlerini / / arasında verdim. Hiç şüphesiz bu söyleyiş şekilleri Şavşat yöresi olarak adlandırılsa da Şavşat içerisinde de farklı söyleyiş biçimleri mevcuttur: Bunlardan birincisi, daha çok Ciritdüzü, Veliköy, Düzenli, Kireçli, Yavuzköy gibi Şavşat ilçe merkezine daha yakın köylerdeki söyleyiş biçimidir. İkincisi Pınarlı ve çevresinde konuşulan ve özellikle sesli harflerde daha çok ince ünlüler yerine kalın ünlülerin kullanıldığı bir ağızdır. Örneğin: “gel” kelimesi birinci bölgede /gäl/, ikinci bölgede ise /gal/ olarak söylenir. Bu söyleniş faklılığı bazı seslerde özellikle e,a oldukça belirgindir. Ben burada genellikle birinci bölgeyi esas aldım, eğer kelime ikinci bölgeden derlenmişse olduğu gibi aktardım.
Kelimelerin anlamlarını verirken bu konuda yapılmış ciddi bir çalışma olan Yeni Tarama Sözlüğü* (YTS)’nde yer alan kelimeleri ve anlamlarını ayrıca dipnotlarla verdim. Aynı kelime farklı anlamlarda kullanıldığı için buraya tekrar alma ihtiyacı hissettim. Öte yandan Journal of Turkish Studies (JTS)’te yayımlanan makalede bazı kelimelerle ilgili bir çalışma yer aldığı için bunu da burada belirttim.
Kelimeleri aktarırken yöre ağzındaki sesleri kaybetmemek için diğer yöre ağzı çalışmalarında olduğu gibi ek sesler kullanıldı. Bu sesler:
ä bu ses “e” ile “a” sesi arasında bir ses olup özellikle “l” harfinden önce kullanılmaktadır. Bu ses Türkçenin en eski dönemlerinden beri kullanılmakta olup Azeri Türkçesindeki ä ile aynıdır.
í bu ses “ı” ile “i” arası sestir.
ó bu ses “o” ile “ö” arası sestir.
ú bu ses “u” ile “ü” arası sestir.
çc bu ses “ç” sesinden daha sert bir sestir. “ç” ye göre daha geriden çıkartılır.
ts bu ses “t” ile “s” sesinin birleşmesinden oluşmuş gibi çıkan Rusça’da bulunan sestir.
t Osmanlı Türkçesinde kullanılan ve çeviriyazıda “t” altında nokta simgesiyle gösterilen ve Arapça “tı” harfiyle simgelelen sestir.
x Osmanlı Türkçesinde kullanılan ve çeviriyazıda “h” altında çengel simgesiyle gösterilen ve Arapça “hı” harfiyle simgelelen sestir.
q Osmanlı Türkçesinde kullanılan ve çeviriyazıda “k” altında nokta simgesiyle gösterilen ve Arapça “kaf” harfiyle simgelelen kalın k sesidir.
µ “p” sesinden daha sert bir “p” dir.
kg “k” ile “g arasından çıkartılan sert sestir.